These groups have cultural centers, and in 1998 a law that was to have made uzbek the only language of official communication was relaxed. Nevertheless, non-Uzbek-speakers have complained that they face difficulties finding jobs and entering a university. As a result of this and of poor economic conditions, many russians and others have left Uzbekistan. Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space. In ancient times the cities of Samarkand and bokhara were regarded as jewels of Islamic architecture, thriving under Amir Timur and his descendants the timurids. They remain major tourist attractions. During the soviet period, cities became filled with concrete-slab apartment blocks of four to nine stories, similar to those found across the ussr. In villages and suburbs, residents were able to live in more traditional one-story houses built around a courtyard.
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The soviet government, and to a lesser extent the russian colonial government that preceded it, setting folded several less prominent nationalities into the uzbeks. The government then institutionalized a national Uzbek culture based on trappings such as language, art, dress, and food, while imbuing them with meanings more closely aligned with Communist ideology. Islam was removed from its central place, veiling of women was banned, and major and minor regional and ethnic differences were smoothed over in favor of an ideologically acceptable uniformity. Since 1991 the government has kept the soviet definition of their nationhood, simply because prior to this there was no sense or definition of a single uzbek nation. But it is literally excising the soviet formation of the culture from its history books; one university history test had just 1 question of 850 dealing with the years 1924 to 1991. The soviet-defined borders left Uzbeks, kyrgiz, tajiks, and others on both sides of Uzbekistan. Since independence, tightening border controls and competition for jobs and resources have caused difficulties for some of these communities, despite warm relations among the states of the region. In June 1989, rioting in the ferghana valley killed thousands of Meskhetian Turks, who had been deported there in 1944. Across essay the border in Osh, kyrgyzstan, the uzbek majority rioted in 1990 over denial of land. There is official support of minority groups such as Russians, koreans, and Tatars.
With the russian revolution in 1917 grew hopes of independence, but by 1921 the bolsheviks had thesis reasserted control. In 1924 soviet planners drew the borders for the soviet socialist republics of Uzbekistan and Karakalpakistan, based around the dominant ethnic groups. In 1929 Tajikstan was split off from the south of Uzbekistan, causing lasting tension between the two; many uzbeks regard Tajiks as Persianized Uzbeks, while tajikstan resented Uzbekistan's retention of the tajik cities of bokhara and Samarkand. Karakalpakistan was transferred to the uzbekistan ssr in 1936, as an autonomous region. Over the ensuing decades, soviet leaders solidified loose alliances and other nationalities into what would become uzbek culture. In August 1991 Uzbek communists supported the reactionary coup against soviet leader mikhail Gorbachev. After the coup failed, uzbekistan declared its independence on 1 September. Though shifting away from communism, President Islom Kharimov, who had been the communist Party's first secretary in Uzbekistan, has maintained absolute control over the independent state. He has continued to define a single uzbek culture, while obscuring its soviet creation.
What followed was the uzbek emirate of bokhara and Samarkand, and the khanates of Khiva and kokand, who ruled until the russian takeover. Russia became interested in Central Asia in the eighteenth century, concerned that the British might break through from colonial India to press its southern flank. Following more than a century of indecisive action, russia in 1868 invaded bokhara, then brutally subjugated Khiva in 1873. Both were made russian protectorates. In 1876, Khokand was annexed. All were subsumed into the russian province of Turkistan, which soon saw the arrival of Russian settlers. The 1910s produced the jadid reform movement, which, though short-lived, sought to establish a community beholden neither to Islamic dogma nor to russian colonists, marking the first glimmer of national identity in many years.
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Amir Timur, who conquered a vast area of Asia from his seat in Samarkand in the fourteenth century, has become a major symbol of Uzbek pride and handwriting potential and of the firm but just and wise ruler—a useful image for the present government, which made. Timur lived more than a century before the uzbeks reached Uzbekistan. Independence day, 1 September, is heavily promoted by the government, as is navruz, 21 March, which highlights the country's folk culture. History and Ethnic Relations, emergence of the nation. The uzbeks coalesced by the fourteenth century in southern Siberia, starting as a loose coalition of Turkic-Mongol nomad tribes who converted to Islam. In the first half of the fifteenth century Abu al-Khayr Khan, a descendant of Genghis Khan, led them south, first to the steppe and semidesert north of the syr-Daria river.
At this time a large segment of Uzbeks split off and headed east to become the kazakhs. In 1468 Abu'l Khayr was killed by a competing faction, but by 1500 the uzbeks had regrouped under Muhammad Shaybani Khan, and invaded the fertile land of modern Uzbekistan. They expelled Amir Timur's heirs from Samarkand and Herat and took over the city-states of Khiva, khojand, and bokhara, which would become the uzbek capital. Settling down, the uzbeks traded their nomadism for urban living and agriculture. The first century of Uzbek rule saw a flourishing of learning and the arts, but the dynasty then slid into decline, helped by the end of the silk route trade. In 1749 invaders from Iran defeated bokhara and Khiva, breaking up the uzbek empire and replacing any group identity with the division between Sarts, or city dwellers, and nomads.
Prior to russian colonization it would often have been hard to say where one turkic language started and another ended. But through prescribed borders, shifts in dialect coalesced into distinct languages. The soviets replaced its Arabic script briefly with a roman script and then with Cyrillic. Since independence there has been a shift back to roman script, as well as a push to eliminate words borrowed from Russian. About 14 percent of the population—mostly non-Uzbek—speak russian as their first language; 5 percent speak tajik. Most Russians do not speak uzbek.
Under the soviet Union, russian was taught as the soviet lingua franca, but Uzbek was supported as the indigenous language of the republic, ironically resulting in the deterioration of other native languages and dialects. Today many people still speak russian, but the government is heavily promoting Uzbek. Symbols of Uzbekistan's independence and past glories are most common. The flag and national colors—green for nature, white for peace, red for life, and blue for water—adorn murals and walls. The twelve stars on the flag symbolize the twelve regions of the country. The crescent moon, a symbol of Islam, is common, though its appearance on the national flag is meant not as a religious symbol but as a metaphor for rebirth. The mythical bird Semurg on the state seal also symbolizes a national renaissance. Cotton, the country's main source of wealth, is displayed on items from the state seal to murals to teacups. The architectures of Samara and bukhara also symbolize past achievements.
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Cities like andijan and Ferghana, whose populations had been only half Uzbek, are now virtually entirely uzbek. In 1990, 600,000 Germans lived in Uzbekistan;. Uzbekistan percent have left. In 1990, 260,000 Jews lived in Uzbekistan; 80 percent have left. Uzbek is short the language of about twenty million Uzbeks living in Uzbekistan, tajikistan, kyrgyzstan, and kazakhstan. The language is Turkic and abounds with dialects, including Qarlug (which served as the literary language for much of Uzbek history kipchak, lokhay, oghuz, qurama, and Sart, some of which come from other languages. Uzbek emerged as a distinct language in the fifteenth century. It is so close to modern Uyghur that speakers of each language can converse easily.
Here, where the country is squeezed between Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, the mountainous terrain supports a continuing nomadic lifestyle, and in recent years has provided a venue for fundamentalist guerrillas. Kazakhstan, turkmenistan, and Afghanistan also border the country. In 1867 the russian colonial government moved the capital from bokhara to tashkent. With.1 million people, it is the largest city in Central Asia. The current population of Uzbekistan.8 million. Seventy-five to 80 percent are uzbek, though many of these were originally from other ethnic groups. Russians and Tajiks are each 5 percent, karakalpaks 2 percent, and other nationalities the remainder. From 1989 to 1996, five hundred thousand more people emigrated than immigrated; most of the emigrants were educated. Of the more than one million people who have left, essentially all were non-Uzbek.book
Under the soviet Union, theirs was a separate republic, and it remains autonomous. Uzbekistan's 174,330 square miles (451,515 square kilometers an area slightly larger than California, begin in the karakum (Black sand) and kyzlkum (Red Sand) deserts of Karakalpakistan. The arid land of this autonomous republic supports a nomadic lifestyle. Recently, the drying up of the Aral sea has devastated the environment, causing more than 30 percent of the area's population to leave, from villages in the early 1980s and then from cities. This will continue; the area was hit by a devastating drought in the summer of 2000. Population increases to the east, centered around fertile oases and the valleys of the Amu-darya river, once known as the Oxus, and the zeravshan river, which supports the ancient city-states of bokhara and Samarkand. The ferghana valley in the east is the heart of Islam in Uzbekistan.
Uzbeks likely take their name from a khan. A leader of the golden Horde in the fourteenth century was named Uzbek, though he did not rule over the people who would share his name. Modern Uzbeks hail not only from the turkic-Mongol nomads who first claimed the name, but also from other Turkic and Persian peoples living inside the country's borders. The soviets, in an effort to paper divide the turkic people into more easily governable subdivisions, labeled Turks, tajiks, sarts, qipchaqs, Khojas, and others as Uzbek, doubling the size of the ethnicity to four million in 1924. Today the government is strengthening the uzbek group identity, to prevent the splintering seen in other multiethnic states. Some people have assimilated with seemingly little concern. Many tajiks consider themselves Uzbek, though they retain the tajik language; this may be because they have long shared an urban lifestyle, which was more of a bond than ethnic labels. Others have been more resistant to uzbekization. Many qipchaqs eschew intermarriage, live a nomadic lifestyle, and identify more closely with the kyrgyz who live across the border from them.
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Summary: Essay compares and contrasts the openings of the novels "Enduring love" by ian McEwan and "Knowledge of Angels" by jill Patton. Enduring love' by ian McEwan and Knowledge of Angels' by jill Patton Walsh are two very different novels, concerning very different subject matters, yet both have managed to master capturing the reader's avid attention and imagination in their enthralling openings. One about a catastrophe involving a hot air balloon, another set short on a distant Mediterranean island, both novels have the essential components to a compelling introduction. They not only provide the reader with an insight into the novel, but when written in an original and intriguing style, as both these novels have been, the reader becomes drawn in, causing them to read. The first line of the two introductions are both equally fascinating. Enduring love' begins with suspense, as the first line, "The beginning was simple to mark causes the reader to question the beginning of what, exactly? The fact that it is a short, sharp sentence.