148 The court issued its ruling in response to a motion brought by costa rica in 2016. The costa rican government asked the court to give its opinion on whether it had an obligation to extend property rights to same-sex couples, and the court ruled that it did. The costa rican government also wanted to know whether it should allow transgender people to change their name and gender on their identity documents. Again, the court ruled that it must. Following the ruling, lgbt advocacy groups and legal experts in numerous countries in the Americas began urging their respective governments and/or courts to implement the decision. These countries include Chile, 149 the dominican Republic, 150 Ecuador, 151 El Salvador, 152 guatemala, 152 Honduras, 153 Mexico, 152 Nicaragua, 154 Paraguay 155 and Peru. 156 The governments of Costa rica and Panama have announced that they will fully implement the iachr ruling. 157 158 Additionally, on 11 January, the president of the supreme court of Peru and chairman of the country's judiciary, duberlí rodríguez, stated that Peru should abide by the decision.
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Louis county, missouri (6 november) best Jackson county, missouri (7 november) douglas county, kansas (12 november) Sedgwick county, kansas (12 november) Eastern Shoshone Tribe (14 november) Northern Arapaho Tribe (14 november) Montana (19 november) Blackfeet Nation (19 november) south Carolina (20 november) Keweenaw bay indian Community. 137 The court found, by a vote of role 4 to 3, that their human rights had not been violated. 138 British Judge sir Nicolas Bratza, then head of the european court of Human Rights, delivered a speech in 2012 that signaled the court was ready to declare same-sex marriage a "human right as soon as enough countries fell into line. Article 12 of the european Convention on Human Rights states that: "Men and women of marriageable age have the right to marry and to found a family, according to the national laws governing the exercise of this right 142 not limiting marriage to those. However, the echr stated in Schalk and Kopf v austria that this provision was intended to limit marriage to heterosexual relationships, as it used the term "men and women" instead of "everyone". 137 European Union edit On, the european Parliament passed a non-binding resolution encouraging eu institutions and member states to "reflect on the recognition of same-sex marriage or same-sex civil union as a political, social and human and civil rights issue." On, the european court. 146 147 Inter-American court of Human Rights edit After a motion lodged by costa rica, the Inter-American court of Human Rights issued a landmark advisory ruling in favour of same-sex marriage on, which is expected to facilitate legalisation in several countries in the Americas. Nb 7 3 The court said that governments "must recognise and guarantee all the rights that are derived from a family bond between people of the same sex". They also said that it was inadmissible and discriminatory for a separate legal provision to be established (such as civil unions) instead of same-sex marriages. The court demanded that governments "guarantee access to all existing forms of domestic legal systems, including the right to marriage, in order to ensure the protection of all the rights of families formed by same-sex couples without discrimination". Recognising the difficulty in passing such laws in countries where there is strong opposition to same-sex marriage, it recommended that governments pass temporary decrees until new legislation is brought.
In Nepal and taiwan, their recognition has been judicially mandated but not yet legislated. 134 Furthermore, most jurisdictions of the buy United Kingdom nb 4 have also legalised same-sex marriage, with the first being England and Wales in March 2014, followed by Scotland in December of the same year. Same-sex marriage is, however, not legal in Northern Ireland. In taiwan, on, the constitutional court ruled that same-sex couples have the right to marry under the taiwanese constitution and that the legislative yuan has two years to amend the marriage laws to align with the constitution. If this is not done, same-sex couples may have their unions registered as marriages and be treated as such by law. 135 In December 2017, the constitutional court of Austria ruled in a discrimination case that same-sex marriage will become legal in that nation on if Parliament does not legalize it before that date. 136 Timeline edit main article: Timeline of same-sex marriage note: countries and territories in which same-sex marriage laws have been repealed are not included on the table. Maryland (1 January) são paulo (16 February) ceará (15 March) Little Traverse bay bands of Odawa Indians (15 March) Paraná (26 March) Mato Grosso do sul (2 April) Rondônia (26 April) Santa catarina (29 April) Paraíba (29 April) pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians (8 may). Louis, missouri (5 november).
129 Contemporary edit Writing in Harvard Magazine in 2013, legal historian Michael Klarman wrote that while there was a growth of gay rights activism in the 1970s United States, "Marriage equality was not then a priority." he argued that many gay people were not initially. 130 Others, such as Faramerz dabhoiwala writing for The guardian, say that the modern movement began in the 1990s. 131 Denmark was the first country to recognize a legal relationship for same-sex couples, establishing "registered partnerships" in 1989. This gave those in same-sex relationships "most rights of married heterosexuals, but not the right to adopt or obtain joint custody of a child". 132 In 2001, the netherlands nb 2 became the first country to permit same-sex marriages. 133 Since then same-sex marriages have been permitted and mutually recognized by belgium (2003 Spain (2005 canada (2005 south Africa (2006 norway (2009 Sweden (2009 portugal (2010 Iceland (2010 Argentina (2010 denmark (2012 Brazil (2013 France (2013 Uruguay (2013 new zealand nb 3 (2013 luxembourg. In Mexico, same-sex marriages are performed in a number of states and recognised vertebrae in all thirty-one states.
The first Roman emperor to have married a man was Nero, who is reported to have married two other males on different occasions. The first was with one of Nero's own freedmen, pythagoras, with whom Nero took the role of the bride. 123 Later, as a groom, nero married Sporus, a young boy, to replace the adolescent female concubine he had killed 124 125 and married him in a very public ceremony with all the solemnities of matrimony, after which Sporus was forced to pretend. 124 A friend gave the "bride" away as required by law. The marriage was celebrated in both Greece and Rome in extravagant public ceremonies. 126 It should be noted, however, that conubium existed only between a civis Romanus and a civis Romana (that is, between a male roman citizen and a female roman citizen so that a marriage between two roman males (or with a slave) would have. 127 Furthermore, according to susan Treggiari, " matrimonium was then an institution involving a mother, mater. The idea implicit in the word is that a man took a woman in marriage, in matrimonium ducere, so that he might have children by her." 128 In 342 ad, christian emperors Constantius ii and Constans issued a law in the Theodosian Code (. 9.7.3) prohibiting same-sex marriage in Rome and ordering execution for those so married.
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A consistent trend of increasing support for same-sex marriage has been revealed across the world, often driven by a significant generational gap. Much of the research that was conducted in beauty developed countries in the first decade of the 21st century shows a majority of people in support of same-sex marriage. Support for legal same-sex marriage has increased across every age group, political ideology, religion, gender, race and region of various developed countries in the world. In the United States, continuous polling by gallup has shown that support for same-sex marriage has grown rapidly, while opposition has collapsed. In 1996, 68 of Americans opposed same-sex marriage, while only 27 supported. In 2018, 67 of Americans supported same-sex marriage, while only 31 opposed. 73 Various detailed polls and studies on same-sex marriage that were conducted in several countries show that support for same-sex marriage generally increases with higher levels of education and is stronger among younger generations.
Indicates the country has legalized same-sex marriage nationwide Indicates that same-sex marriage is legal in certain parts of the country Opinion polls for same-sex marriage country pollster year For Against neutral 78 source Argentina Ipsos Armenia pew Research Center Australia essential Austria pew Research Center. The Old Testament prohibited homosexual relations (Lev. 18:22, 20:13 and the jewish sages provide the reason for this as being that the hebrews were warned not to "follow the acts of the land of Egypt or the acts of the land of Canaan." The sages explicitly state: "what did the Egyptians and. A man would marry a man and a woman marry a woman." 115 What is arguably the first historical mention of the performance of same-sex marriages occurred during the early roman Empire according to controversial 116 historian John Boswell. 117 These were usually reported in a critical or satirical manner. 118 Child emperor Elagabalus referred to his chariot driver, a blond slave from Caria named hierocles, as his husband. 119 he also married an athlete named Zoticus in a lavish public ceremony in Rome amidst the rejoicings of the citizens.
Same-sex parents and carers and their children are likely to benefit in numerous ways from legal recognition of their families, and providing such recognition through marriage will bestow greater benefit than civil unions or domestic partnerships. 63 64 The American Psychological Association stated in 2004: "Denial of access to marriage to same-sex couples may especially harm people who also experience discrimination based on age, race, ethnicity, disability, gender and gender identity, religion, socioeconomic status and." It has also averred. 11 In 2009, a pair of economists at Emory University tied the passage of state bans on same-sex marriage in the United States to an increase in the rates of hiv infection. 65 66 The study linked the passage of a same-sex marriage ban in a state to an increase in the annual hiv rate within that state of roughly 4 cases per 100,000 population. 67 Parenting edit Professional organizations of psychologists have concluded that children stand to benefit from the well-being that results when their parents' relationship is recognized and supported by society's institutions,. For example, the canadian Psychological Association stated in 2006 that "parents' financial, psychological and physical well-being is enhanced by marriage and that children benefit from being raised by two parents within a legally-recognized union." 14 The cpa stated in 2003 the stressors encountered by gay.
14 The American Academy of Pediatrics concluded in 2006, in an analysis published in the journal Pediatrics : 63 There is ample evidence to show that children raised by same-gender parents fare as well as those raised by heterosexual parents. More than 25 years of research have documented that there is no relationship between parents' sexual orientation and any measure of a child's emotional, psychosocial, and behavioral adjustment. These data have demonstrated no risk to children as a result of growing up in a family with 1 or more gay parents. Conscientious and nurturing adults, whether they are men or women, heterosexual or homosexual, can be excellent parents. The rights, benefits, and protections of civil marriage can further strengthen these families. Polling edit see also: Public opinion of same-sex marriage in the United States and Public opinion of same-sex marriage in Australia numerous polls and studies on the issue have been conducted, including those that were completed throughout the first decade of the 21st century.
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The researchers took advantage of the gradual manner in which same-sex marriage was established in the United States (expanding from 1 state in 2004 to all 50 states in 2015) to compare the rate of attempted suicide among children in each state over the time. Once same-sex marriage was established in a particular state, the reduction in the rate of attempted suicide among children in that state became permanent. No reduction in the rate of attempted suicide among children occurred in a particular state until that state recognized same-sex marriage. The lead researcher of the study observed that "laws that have the greatest impact on gay adults may make gay kids feel more hopeful for the future". Health edit a same-sex wedding ceremony in June 2006 In 2010, a columbia university mailman School of Public health study examining the effects of institutional discrimination on the psychiatric health of lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) individuals found an increase in psychiatric disorders, including. According to the author, the study highlighted the importance of abolishing institutional forms of discrimination, including those leading to disparities in the mental health and well-being of lgb individuals. Institutional discrimination is juan characterized by societal-level conditions that limit the opportunities and access to resources by socially disadvantaged groups. 59 60 gay activist Jonathan rauch has argued that marriage is good for all men, whether homosexual or heterosexual, because engaging in its social roles reduces men's essay aggression and promiscuity. 61 62 The data of current psychological and other social science studies on same-sex marriage in comparison to mixed-sex marriage indicate that same-sex and mixed-sex relationships do not differ in their essential psychosocial dimensions; that a parent's sexual orientation is unrelated to their ability.
47 48 The Oxford English Dictionary has recognized same-sex marriage since 2000. 49 Opponents of same-sex marriage, who want marriage to be restricted to heterosexuals, such as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day saints, the catholic Church, and essay the southern Baptist Convention, use the term traditional marriage to mean opposite-sex marriage. Studies edit The American Anthropological Association stated on 26 February 2004: 18 The results of more than a century of anthropological research on households, kinship relationships, and families, across cultures and through time, provide no support whatsoever for the view that either civilization or viable. Rather, anthropological research supports the conclusion that a vast array of family types, including families built upon same-sex partnerships, can contribute to stable and humane societies. Research findings from from the University of Virginia, michigan State University, florida State University, the University of Amsterdam, the new York State Psychiatric Institute, stanford University, the University of California-san Francisco, the University of California-los Angeles, tufts University, boston Medical Center, the committee on Psychosocial. 53 Child suicide edit The establishment of same-sex marriage is associated with a significant reduction in the rate of attempted suicide among children, with the effect being concentrated among children of a minority sexual orientation. A study of nationwide data from across the United States from January 1999 to december 2015 revealed that the rate of attempted suicide among all schoolchildren in grades 9 to 12 declined by 7 and the rate of attempted suicide among schoolchildren of a minority.
claims are countered by science which shows that homosexuality is a natural and normal human sexuality, that sexual orientation cannot be chosen or influenced, and that the children of same-sex couples fare just as well or even better than the children of opposite-sex. A study of nationwide data from across the United States from January 1999 to december 2015 revealed that the establishment of same-sex marriage is associated with a significant reduction in the rate of attempted suicide among children, with the effect being concentrated among children. Contents Terminology edit Alternative terms edit some proponents of legal recognition of same-sex marriage, such as Freedom to marry and Canadians for Equal Marriage, use the terms marriage equality and equal marriage to indicate that they seek the recognition of same-sex marriage on equal ground. Associated Press style recommends the usages marriage for gays and lesbians or in space-limited headlines gay marriage with no hyphen and no scare"s. The Associated Press warns that the construct gay marriage can imply that the marriages of same-sex couples are somehow different from the marriages of opposite-sex couples. 41 42 Use of the term marriage edit Anthropologists have struggled to determine a definition of marriage that absorbs commonalities of the social construct across cultures around the world. 43 44 Many proposed definitions have been criticized for failing to recognize the existence of same-sex marriage in some cultures, including in more than 30 African cultures, such as the kikuyu and nuer. With several countries revising their marriage laws to recognize same-sex couples in the 21st century, all major English dictionaries have revised their definition of the word marriage to either drop gender specifications or supplement them with secondary definitions to include gender-neutral language or explicit recognition.
Nb 6 1 2 Furthermore, after a motion lodged by costa rica, the Inter-American court of Human Rights issued a ruling in favor of same-sex marriage on, which is expected to facilitate recognition in several countries in the Americas. Nb 7 3 The introduction of same-sex marriage has varied by jurisdiction, being variously accomplished through legislative change to marriage law, a court ruling based on constitutional guarantees of equality, or by direct popular vote (via ballot initiative or referendum ). The recognition of same-sex marriage is considered to be a human rights, civil rights, political, social, and shortage religious issue. 4 5 6 7 The most prominent supporters of same-sex marriage are human rights and civil rights organizations as well as the medical and scientific communities, while the most prominent opponents are religious groups. Various faith communities around the world support same-sex marriage, while many religious groups oppose. Polls consistently show continually rising support for the recognition of same-sex marriage in all developed democracies and in some developing democracies. 8 9 10 Scientific studies show that the financial, psychological, and physical well-being of gay people are enhanced by marriage, and that the children of same-sex parents benefit from being raised by married same-sex couples within a legally recognized union supported by society's institutions. Social science research indicates that the exclusion of homosexuals from marriage stigmatizes and invites public discrimination against them, with research also rejecting the notion that either civilization or viable social orders depend upon restricting marriage to heterosexuals. 17 18 Same-sex marriage can provide those in committed same-sex relationships, who pay their taxes, government services and make financial demands on them comparable to that afforded to and required of those in opposite-sex marriages, and also gives them legal protections such as inheritance and.
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"Marriage equality" redirects here. For other uses, see. "gay marriage" redirects here. For the paper 2004 book, see. Same-sex marriage (also known as gay marriage ) is the marriage of a same-sex couple, entered into in a civil or religious ceremony. The term marriage equality refers to a political status in which the marriages of same-sex couples and the marriages of opposite-sex couples are recognized as equal by the law. As of 2018, same-sex marriage is recognized by law (nationwide or in some parts) in the following countries: Argentina, australia, belgium, brazil, canada, colombia, denmark, finland, france, germany, iceland, ireland, luxembourg, malta, mexico, nb 1 the, netherlands, nb 2, new zealand, nb 3 Norway, portugal. Additionally, armenia, estonia, and Israel recognize the marriages of same-sex couples validly entered into in other countries. Same-sex marriage is also due to soon become recognized by law in taiwan and Austria, after constitutional court rulings on the subject in may and December 2017, respectively.