(3) point Method—This method is most widely used system of job evaluation. It involves a more detailed, quantitative and analytical evaluation of jobs. It requires identifying a number of compensable factors. Various characteristics of jobs and the determining degree to which each of these factors is present in the job. A different number of points is usually assigned for each degree, of each factor. According to dale. Beads— "Every point plan consists of a number of compensable job factors or characteristics. This can be classified under four headings of skill, effort, responsibility, and job conditions.".
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There is no hard and fast rule about the number of job-grades. However, too many grades should freshmen be avoided. A job grading scheme should be prepared on scientific basis. When deciding about the grade, details of work performed, tools and equipments necessary to do the job, the physical surroundings, risks, involved etc. Are taken into consideration. After preparing list of all existing jobs in the office, they are placed in various grades. The number of grades depends the policy of the organisation regarding the number of job grades to be created and titled given to them. When job contents change, job grading is also revised. Job grading involves following steps: (i) the preparation of job descriptions (ii) the preparation of grade descriptions (iii) Selection of grades and key jobs. (iv) Grading the key jobs (v) Classification of all jobs.
(iii) Probability and consequence of errors. (iv) Minimum experience requirement. (v) Minimum education required. (2) Job classification or grading method—Job classification or job grading is a process of scientific study of all the facts about a job, so as to reveal the content. Job-grading refers to the classification and analysis of jobs which are performed vertebrae in an organisation and to their relative levels. According to denyer "Job-grading consists of a scientific study of all jobs (job evaluation) and then placing of these jobs into broad categories called job-grades. It is fundamentally a technique of determining the differences between jobs, and of rationalising rates of pay in large organisations." Job-grading is done by studying the essential characteristics of each job. These characteristics are: (a) the experience required, (b) the skill required, the initiative required, (d) the level of responsibility entailed, and (e) the level of supervision needed for the job. Identical jobs are grouped in as objective a manner as possible.
Refund Clerk Adjuster, transfer Clerk collection Clerk. (b) Next the english rater examines each pair and determines which of the two metamorphosis is more difficult in terms of characteristics selected as guides. Thus he has to keep only two jobs in mind. He then underlines the more difficult job. How many times a particular job is rated more difficult than others, is counted. (3) Ranking along a number line—here ranks obtained from job descriptions or paired comparison are spaced along a number line. For example job x is the highest rank job and job y is picked up to find out its closeness to job. The ranking system of job evaluation usually measures each job in comparison with other jobs in terms of the relative importance of the following five factors: (i) Supervision and leadership of subordinates. (ii) Cooperation with associates outside the line of authority.
In the preceding method, a rater is required to keep in mind all the jobs being ranked in order to place them in their correct relationship to each other. But this task may become difficult as the number of jobs increases. Distinguishing differences among jobs may be overlooked or forgotten. This would result in less accurate evaluation. To do away with this weakness, "paired comparison method" has been suggested. This method involves following steps : (a) First of all, each job is paired with every other job in the series. Suppose there are four jobs say, refund clerk, transfer clerk, adjuster and collection clerk, their pairs will occur as follows : Refund Clerk Transfer Clerk, transfer Clerk Adjuster, collection Clerk refund Clerk.
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Three techniques are generally used for ranking purposes:. Ranking along a number line. Utilizing job descriptions—When this procedure is followed, each rater is given a set of job descriptions, one for each job to resume be ranked. The job descriptions are then studied and analysed. The differences between them are noted with respect to the key points selected for comparison. The rater determines which job in the series requires least amount of various characteristics used for comparison, and places that job in the lowest rank position.
He then determines which job requires next higher amount of characteristics and places it next to preceding job's rank. Sometimes, two or more jobs fall in the same rank position. In such cases, they are assigned the same rank position. After each rater has assigned the rank independently, their rankings can be compared. This comparison is usually made by having the raters meet as a committee and discuss with each other their respective rankings. Final rankings may be done by majority vote or averaging the rankings of raters. The method just described above involves independent ranking first and then and integration with the ranking of the other raters.
While it is easy for the teachers to do, the students dont remember the word as well, nor are they able to understand (without further explanation or translation) how and when the word is used. Following are the methods of job-evaluation: (A) Non-quantitative methods: (1) Ranking Method. (2) Job classification or Grading System. (B) Quantitative methods: (1) Factor Comparison Method. The non-quantitative or non-analytical or summary methods utilise non-quantitative methods of listing jobs in order of difficulty.
They are simple methods. The job is treated as a whole and job descriptions rather to job specifications are often utilised. On the other hand, quantitative or analytical methods use quantitative techniques in listing the jobs. They are more complex and are time consuming. Let us discuss these methods in detail. (1) Ranking Method—Under this system, all the jobs are arranged or ranked in the order of importance from the simplest to the hardest, or in the reverse order each successive job being higher or lower than the previous one in the sequence. It is not necessary to have job descriptions, although they are useful. A common practice is to arrange all the jobs according to their requirements by rating them and then to establish the group or classification. In this method, jobs are not split up into their component parts, however comparison is made on the basis of whole jobs.
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If the word is assignments run, the teacher mimes running. If the word is to call (on the telephone the teacher acts out calling someone on the telephone. Tpr (Total Physical Response like gesture/Mime this is can be a demonstration of the word. In tpr, restaurant the teacher models a gesture along with the word and the students repeat that gesture while saying the word. This is especially effective when teaching prepositions of place, directions or simple phrasal verbs like stand up and sit down. This means using a drawing or picture to introduce the new word. Visuals should always be clear and easy for students to see and understand. Explanation/Translation, this is the least effective method of introducing vocabulary to the students.
For the former it may be enough to give some controlled or guided practice activities: filling gaps in a text with words from a given list or matching words and definitions, for examp 2 Vocabulary, if you want to provide freer productive practice you may. For example, after you have revised and introduced some food and drink vocabulary the students can take part in a roleplay long set in a restaurant where they read a menu and choose and order food. In addition, you may often want to set vocabulary-learning homework. You can decide on the words and expressions to learn and give a short test during the next lesson. Alternatively, you can ask the students to choose, say, ten words or expressions from the day's lesson to learn. The next lesson you can then put them in pairs and ask them to test each other. In this way they learn their own list and get further practice in the words their partner has chosen to learn. Vocabulary, if you want to provide freer productive practice you may plan to integrate work on vocabulary with some productive skills work. Gesture/Mime, like realia, this is a demonstration of the actual word.
or from a model provided on cassette, together and/or individually. 5 If you haven't already done so, write the words on the board. Mark the word stress, note what parts of speech the items belong to, any spelling points worthy of note, contractions, punctuation and capital letters where appropriate. Write down examples of the language item in sentences - try to make the sentences personal and memorable to the students. 6 give the students time to make a note of where the information is recorded in their coursebook or to copy the information in vocabulary notebooks under the topic heading of food and Drink. You can encourage the students to include any 'memory triggers' - a picture or diagram, a translation, information about how the word is pronounced, the use of different colours for different parts of speech, etc. 7 Any further practice activities you organize will depend on the vocabulary items and whether you expect the vocabulary to be for receptive use only (ie students can understand the word or expression if they see it written or hear it spoken) or for productive.
It is particularly useful when essay the teacher wants to present a set of 'concrete demonstrable words and expressions on a particular topic. You can proceed in a way which is very similar to that outlined in the inductive approach to presenting a structure (see pi 29 with a few notable changes: Example The teacher wants to elicit the words for food and drink that the students already. 1 Illustrate the meaning using visual aids (pictures and drawings or, if possible, real food and drink). 2 say the words. Don't forget to include any grammar words that make up the lexical item: for example, the preposition o/as in a bottle of mineral water. At this point you can write the words on the board, or you can leave this step until later. 3 Check the students' understanding of the meaning of the items. (For ideas on how to do this, see below.) In steps 2 and 3 involve the students as much as possible: elicit what they already know and encourage them to help one another.
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In order to maximize your students interest, establish the meaning of a word by using an everyday example in a sentence so that they can have some kind of connection with. Ensure you model the word correctly; you can do this by saying the word correctly yourself. Next drill the word to your students, asking them blood to repeat it after you. It is important to make sure that any new words are taught at a slow pace. Dont teach too many new words at once, this will only create confusion and frustration for the learners. There are many methods of teaching vocabulary, which include using: Visuals: Photographs, maps, pictures, mime and gestures, giving an example or a definition using the word in a sentence. Asking who knows the capital City of England? As with the presentation of structures, introducing vocabulary through a visual/oral context is very effective, especially with lower level students and with children.