From an economic perspective, the trend towards living alone will result in greater demand for housing. This is likely to benefit the construction industry, estate agents and a whole host of other companies that rely on homeowners to buy their products or services. However, the personal and economic arguments given above can be considered from the opposite angle. Firstly, rather than the positive feeling of increased independence, people who live alone may experience feelings of loneliness, isolation and worry. They miss out on the emotional support and daily conversation that family or flatmates can provide, and they must bear the weight of all household bills and responsibilities; in this sense, perhaps the trend towards living alone is a negative one. Secondly, from the financial point of view, a rise in demand for housing is likely to push up property prices and rents. While this may benefit some businesses, the general population, including those who live alone, will be faced with rising living costs.
Ielts writing Task 2: climate change essay - ielts
Html pdf writing Conclusions learn to explore the implications of your topic or argument in a strong ending paragraph. Html pdf writing Resumes cover Letters make a strong impression when applying to jobs or graduate school with a well-designed resume and cover letter. Here's my full essay for the 'positive or negative development' question that we've been looking at over the last few weeks. In some countries, many more people are choosing to live alone nowadays than in the past. Do you think this is a positive or negative development? In recent years it has become far more normal for people to live alone, particularly in large cities in the developed handwriting world. In my opinion, this trend could have both positive and negative consequences in equal measure. The rise in one-person households can be seen as positive for both personal and broader economic reasons. On an individual level, people who choose to live alone may become more independent and self-reliant than those who live with family members. A young adult who lives alone, for example, will need to learn to cook, clean, pay bills and manage his or her budget, all of which are valuable life skills; an increase in the number of such individuals can certainly be seen as a positive.
Html, pdf, plagiarism, understand what constitutes plagiarism and how to avoid this serious problem. Html, pdf, proofreading Grammar, learn to proofread for errors in spelling, punctuation, table and grammar. Html, pdf, proofreading Spelling, learn how to avoid common spelling errors. Html, pdf, taking an Essay exam, learn some strategies for crafting strong essays under pressure. Html, pdf, using evidence, learn strategies for supporting your claims and persuading your reader with evidence. Html, pdf, using Outlines, learn to organize your ideas when researching and writing. Html, pdf, writing Abstracts, learn how to briefly and objectively describe scholarly sources. Html, pdf, writing book reviews, learn to apply analytical reading strategies to evaluate how well books accomplish their authors' intended goals.
Try writing it at different stages in the and composing and revising process and use what you discover about whats easy and whats hard to articulate about the project to clarify and strengthen your argument in the essay itself. In other words, yet another important audience for your abstract is yourself). Home, writing guides, doctoral Dissertations proposals, social Sciences humanities. Introduces the basic concepts necessary to craft a dissertation. Html, pdf, how to Write a thesis Statement. A thesis statement expresses the central argument or claim of your essay. Learn more in this pamphlet. Html, pdf, video, paragraphs and Topic Sentences, every paragraph should have a topic sentence. Html, pdf, personal metamorphosis Statements application Letters, helpful tips for crafting a compelling personal statement or application letter.
It starts by addressing the so what? Question, it explicitly announces its methodological commitment (to a conception of narrative as rhetoric and it clearly states its conclusions in a way that situates them in the larger debate. Rather than assuming that the analysis of the case studies is a worthwhile project, it focuses on articulating its worth. The abstract itself does not provide sufficient grounds for an editor or reviewer to decide that the essay should be published, (after all, the execution of the argument sketched in the essay could be unsuccessful but it is likely to make those readers interested. In closing, we note that weve been assuming that the article out of which the abstract is formed is a publishable one. But that might not be the case. If youre having trouble writing an abstract that articulates what it contributes to an existing scholarly conversation, the reason could be that the article doesnt do that either. If you find yourself in that situation, you can use the exercise of writing an abstract to detect the raw or undercooked elements of your article. In fact, we recommend that you not wait until youre finished with your article to write your abstract.
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It offers warrants for that contention by (a) proposing a conception of narrative as rhetoric and (b) using that conception to analyze two essays by Atul Gawande, on Washing Hands (2007) and Letting go (2014 which rely heavily on narrative as part of their larger. The analysis leads to the conclusion that a skillful author can, depending on his or her overall purposes, use narrative either as a mode of argument in itself or as a means of supporting arguments made through non-narrative means - and can even use both. Which abstract is twilight stronger? Abstract 1 adopts the strategy of offering a general statement about the larger argument and focusing on what the essay says about the case studies. Abstract 2, in contrast, backgrounds the details about the case studies and foregrounds the larger issues of the argument. Not surprisingly, in light of what we have said so far, we find Abstract 2 to be far more effective than Abstract. Abstract 1 is ineffective because it is almost all trees and no forest.
Indeed, its opening acknowledgment of the forest does not do much more than restate the essays title. In addition, Abstract 1 does not address the so what? Question, does not say anything significant about its methodological commitments, and does not even do a good job of explaining how the analyses of the two case studies relate to each other. Its fundamental flaw is its unexamined assumption that each of its two cases studies is in itself a significant contribution to conversations about the relation between narrative and argument. Abstract 2 is much more effective because it backgrounds the trees and foregrounds the forest.
(The collection is edited by paula Olmos and forthcoming from Springer.). The title of the essay is Narrative as Argument in Atul Gawandes On Washing Hands and Letting Go As the title suggests, much of the space of the essay is devoted to the analysis of Gawandes two essays, which become case studies in the larger. The two abstracts handle those case studies in very different ways. Abstract 1: This essay demonstrates how Atul Gawande uses stories in the service of his arguments in two of his essays, On Washing Hands from. Better (2007) and Letting go from, being Mortal (2014). In both essays, gawande works with a problem-solution argumentative structure and uses narrative to complicate that structure.
In On Washing Hands, he does not construct a straightforward argument with a straightforward thesis. Instead, he uses several mini-narratives in combination with exposition and with thematizing commentary to alter his audiences understanding of both the problem and the solution. Indeed, he uses the ending to the central narrative as a way to temper his audiences enthusiasm for the solution. Letting go is longer and more complexly organized than On Washing Hands, but Gawandes use of a central story threaded throughout the essay and his representation of himself are crucial to his adaptation of the problem-solution structure. Furthermore, gawande uses narrative to raise an important objection to his solution and responds to the objection not with a counternarrative but with a counterargument. Abstract 2: This essay responds to scholarly skepticism about narrative as argument, due to its reliance on hindsight effects (because such and such happened, then so and so must be the causes and its tendency to develop inadequate analogies or to overgeneralize from single cases. The essay contends that, while some uses of narrative as argument display these problems, they are not inherent in narrative itself.
Ielts writing Task 2: 'positive or negative' essay - ielts
This beauty kind of abstract focuses on the trees and ignores the forest. Good abstracts give their audience a clear vision of the forest. The abstract that simply repeats the articles first paragraph. Such an abstract assumes that the purposes of first paragraphs and abstracts are essentially the same, but a little reflection reveals the inadequacy of that assumption. The purpose blood of the first paragraph is to launch the argument, while the purpose of the abstract is to provide a comprehensive overview of it and its stakes. Both the abstract and the first paragraph may include the thesis of the argument, but the first paragraph cant offer the birds-eye view of the whole essay and why it matters that an effective abstract does. A tale of Two Abstracts, in order to illustrate these general points, we offer two abstracts of an essay that, one of us (Jim) has recently contributed to a collection of essays. Narration as Argument, a volume designed to address debates about the efficacy and validity of stories in argumentative discourse.
It may be to marriage bring new evidence and insights to an ongoing debate. . It may be to call attention to some objects of study that previous scholarship has neglected and whose significance for the field you will elucidate. . And thats just a partial list. . But whatever your intervention, your abstract should express it clearly and directly. We cant overstate how important this element is: it is the one from which everything else - in both abstract and essay - flows. Our reverse engineering of effective abstracts has also led us to identify some common types of ineffective ones: The abstract that announces the topic(s) the essay examines or considers or meditates on without revealing the conclusions that have been drawn from this activity or how. This kind of abstract mistakenly privileges the what (those topics) over the so what (those conclusions and why they matter). The abstract that goes through the article chronologically, describing what it does first, second, third and.
argument proceed? In the course of explaining these matters, you should mention the key concepts, theories or texts you rely on to make your case. How does your article contribute to an existing scholarly conversation? In other words, whats your answer to the so what? Effective abstracts often begin by addressing this question, characterizing the state of the scholarly conversation about the problem or question and highlighting how the article intervenes in that conversation. Your intervention may be to revise, extend or even overturn received wisdom.
How do you produce a good abstract for this audience? In a process of reverse engineering, weve identified a set of recurring questions that underlie the strong abstracts that we have published over the years. You do not need to answer these questions in the order in which we list them here, and you do not need to give them equal time and space, but a good abstract will address all of them. What is the central issue or question or problem driving your inquiry? You might not state the question or problem in an explicit sentence or two in the essay, but you should articulate it in your abstract. What is your answer to this question or problem? Again, you might not state this answer in a single sentence in the essay, but you should state it explicitly in your abstract.
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Most journals require authors to submit abstracts along with their articles, as do both of the journals we edit, ariel and, narrative. This requirement has two main rationales: an abstract offers readers a helpful, succinct summary of the longer argument developed in the essay, and it identifies keywords that will make it easier for search engines to find the essay. Notice that these rationales presuppose the publication of both abstract and essay and, in so doing, assume that the main audience for the abstract is prospective readers of the published essay. However, from the perspective of an author submitting work to a journal, there is another important audience to consider: the journal editor(s) and the external reviewers to whom the editor(s) send. This audience looks at your abstract with their most pressing question in mind: summary is this article publishable in this journal? A good abstract tilts them toward an affirmative answer by leaving them well-disposed toward the longer argument in the article. A bad abstract wont by itself cause this audience to reject an article, but it does incline the audience toward an initial negative answer. In that way, an ineffective abstract becomes an obstacle that your article needs to overcome.