Another shared feature is rice paddy agriculture, which originated in southeast Asia thousands of years ago. Dance drama is also a very important feature of the culture, utilizing movements of the hands and feet perfected over thousands of years. Furthermore, the arts and literature of southeast Asia is very distinctive as some have been influenced by Indian, hindu, chinese, buddhist, and Islamic literature. Western Asia edit western Asia must be distinguished from the middle east, a more recent Eurocentric term, that also includes parts of Northern Africa. 59 West Asia consists of Turkey, syria, georgia, armenia, cyprus, azerbaijan, iraq, iran, lebanon, jordan, israel, palestinian territories, saudi Arabia, kuwait, bahrain, qatar, united Arab Emirates, oman and Yemen. The Israelite / Jewish civilization of the fertile Crescent would have a profound impact on the rest of Western Asia, giving birth to the 3 Abrahamic faiths. In addition, the jewish origins of Christianity, along with the many cultural contributions from both Jews and Arabs in Europe, meant that West Asian culture had left a lasting impact on Western civilization as well. Other indigenous West Asian religions include zoroastrianism, yazidism, alevism, druze and the bahá'í faith.
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57 58 Buddhist culture has a lasting and significant impact in world mainland Indochina nations (Burma, thailand, laos, cambodia and vietnam most Buddhists in Indochina practice Theravada buddhism. In the case of vietnam, it is also influenced much by confucianism and the culture of China. Myanmar has also been exposed to Indian cultural influences. Before the 14th century, hinduism and Buddhism were the dominant religions of southeast Asia. Thereafter, Islam became dominant in Indonesia, malaysia and Brunei. Southeast Asia has also had a lot of Western influence due to the lasting legacy of colonialism. One example is the Philippines which has been heavily influenced by America and Spain, with Christianity ( Catholicism ) as the dominant religion. East Timor also demonstrates Portuguese influence through colonialism, as it is a predominantly Christian nation. A common feature found around the region are stilt houses. These houses are elevated on stilts so that water can easily pass below them in case of a flood.
The main languages of Afghanistan are pashto and Dari. Southeast Asia edit southeast Asia divides into mainland southeast Asia, that encompasses vietnam, laos, cambodia, thailand, myanmar ( Burma and West Malaysia, and Maritime southeast Asia, that includes Indonesia, east Malaysia, singapore, philippines, east Timor, brunei, cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Christmas Island. 55 56 At the crossroads of the Indian and East Asian maritime trade routes since around 500. C., the region has been greatly influenced by the culture of India and China. The term Indianised Kingdoms is a designation for numerous southeast Asian political short units, that had to a varying degree adopted most aspects of India's statecraft, administration, art, epigraphy, writing and architecture. The religions Hinduism, buddhism and Islam gradually diffused into local cosmology. Nonetheless, the southeast Asian nations have very diversely adapted to these cultural stimuli and evolved their distinct sophisticated expression in lifestyle, the visual arts and most notably in architectural accomplishments, such as Angkor Wat in Cambodia and Borobudur in Indonesia.
Tibetan Buddhism is the dominant religion in Bhutan and the tibetan alphabet is used to write dzongkha, the dominant language of Bhutan. There is a cultural and linguistic divide between North and south India. Sri lanka is culturally tied to both India and southeast Asia. 53 Sinhalese, the dominant language in the country is written in the sinhalese alphabet which is derived from the kadamba - pallava alphabet, certain cultural traditions, and aspects of its cuisine, for example, show south Indian influences. Cultural festivals, aspects of its cuisine and Theravada buddhism, the dominant religion in Sri lanka, show a southeast Asian affinity. 54 Indo-Aryan languages are spoken in pakistan, sinhalese of Sri lanka and most of North, west and East India and Nepal. Dravidian languages are spoken in south India and in Sri lanka by the tamil community. Tibeto-burman languages are spoken in the north and North East India. Iranic Languages are spoken in Baluchistan and Khyber pakhtunkhwa in pakistan.
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These arguably represent the furthest reaching, most profound and permanent south Asian ideas on other cultural postnatal spheres. After a long and complex history of cosmological and religious development, adoption and decline, the hindu-synthesis 44 and the late but thorough introduction of Islam about 80 of modern day indians and Nepalis identify as Hindus. 45 In Sri lanka and Bhutan most people adhere to various forms of Buddhism. 46 Islam is the predominant religion in Afghanistan, the maldives (99 pakistan (96) and Bangladesh (90). Afghanistan and pakistan are situated at the western periphery of south Asia, where the cultural character has been made by both, persia, a civilization rooted in Mesopotamia and the Indosphere. 50 pakistan is split with its two western regions of Baluchistan and Khyber pakhtunkhwa sharing a greater Iranic heritage due to the native pashtuns and Baloch people of the regions.
Its two eastern regions of Punjab and Sindh share cultural links to northwest India. Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal share a common heritage and culture based on the bengali language. The culture of India is diverse and a complex mixture of many influences. Nepal is culturally linked to both India and Tibet and the varied ethnic groups of the country share many of the festivals and cultural traditions used and celebrated in North and East India and Tibet. Nepali, the dominant language of Nepal uses the devanagari alphabet which is also used to write many north Indian languages. 51 52 Bhutan is a culturally linked to tibet with significant influences from India.
Has never been contested. The Indus Valley civilisation on the other hand has only come to light by means of 20th century archaeology. Scholars, who employ several periodization models argue over whether south Asian tradition is consciously committed to the harappan culture. Declining climatic conditions, ( aridification ) and population displacement ( Indo-Aryan migration ) are regarded as to have caused the fatal disruption of the harappa culture, that was superseded by the rural Vedic culture. 39 40 main articles: Indo-Aryans, indo-Aryan migrations, and Vedic period Following the Indo-Aryan settlement in the Indo-gangetic Plain and the establishment of the characteristic social groups (Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, vaishyas and Shudras) in the caste system based on the jāti model in the varna order, the. The late vedic political progress results in urbanization, strict social hierarchy, commercial and military rivalries among the settlers, that have spread all over the entire sub-continent.
41 The large body of Vedic texts and literature, supported by the archaeological sequence allows researchers to reconstruct a rather accurate and detailed image of the vedic culture and political organisation. The vedas constitute the oldest work of Sanskrit literature and form the basis of religious, ethic and philosophic ideas in south Asia. They are widely, but not exclusively regarded the basics and scriptural authority on worship, rituals, ceremonies, sacrifices, meditation, philosophy and spiritual knowledge for the future hindu and Buddhist cosmology. Commentaries and discussions also focus on the development of valid political ideas and concepts of societal progress and ethic conformity. 43 see also: History of Hinduism Classical Hinduism (c. 200 bce-1200 CE) Hinduism, buddhism, jainism and sikhism are major world religions that originate in south Asia.
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31 32 Constricted for a long time by ethnic nationalism and antagonism, the nature of mutual cultural interchange in East Asia is only partly known. 33 34 south Asia edit main article: Ethnic groups of south Asia language families in south Asia evidence of neolithic culture has been found throughout the modern states Afghanistan, bangladesh, writing Bhutan, maldives, nepal, India, pakistan and Sri lanka that represent south Asia or southern Asia. In modern-day northeastern Afghanistan, in pakistan and northwestern India a sophisticated Bronze age cultural tradition emerged, that after only a few centuries fully flourished in urban centers. Due to the high quality of its arts, crafts, metallurgy and buildings, the accomplishments in urban planning, governance, trade and technology etc. It has been classified as one of the principal Cradles of civilization. Referred to as the Indus Valley civilisation or Harappan civilisation it thrived for almost.000 years until the onset of the vedic period (c. . 35 36 The great significance of the vedic texts (that don't mention cities or urban life) for south Asian culture, their impact on family, societal organisation, religion, morale, literature etc.
17 Defining East Asian cultural characteristics are the Chinese language influences and traditional writings systems, 19 as well as shared religious and ethic ideas, that are represented by the Three teachings Buddhism, taoism and Confucianism. The Chinese script is one of the oldest continuously used writing proposal systems in the world, and has been a major unifying force and medium for conveying Chinese culture in East Asia. Historically used throughout the region and it is still in use by ethnic Chinese throughout the world, as well as in Japan and to a small and waning extent in south Korea. 24 25 However, as Chinese writing concepts were passed on to korea, japan and vietnam, these nations developed their own characteristic writing systems as the cultural expression of their language families, such as vietnamese, an Austro-Asiatic language ; Japanese, a japonic language ; and Korean. Whereas Chinese is still found in the historical roots of many borrowed words, modern Chinese has been influenced by other Asian languages, such as by modern technical and political terms created in Japan to represent western concepts known as Wasei-kango. 26 Apart from the unifying influence of Confucianism, taoism, chinese characters and numerous other Chinese cultural influences, east Asian national customs, architecture, literature, cuisines, traditional music, performing arts and crafts also have developed from many independent and local concepts, they have grown and diversified. Notable among others are japanese gardens and landscape planning, heian literature, vietnamese water puppetry and the artifacts of the dong Son culture. Modern research has also focused on the several nations pivotal role on the collective body of East Asian Buddhism and the korean influence on Japanese culture.
traditions eventually diffused into more comprehensive systems such as Tibetan Buddhism that developed its own unique characteristics (e.g. 10 East Asia edit main articles: East Asian cultural sphere and East Asia east Asian cultural region a confucian ritual ceremony in Jeju, south Korea the term East Asia defines the geographical region and/or the common cultural sphere of China, japan, north Korea, south Korea. 11 Ethnically and linguistically very closely related, shared artistic traditions, written language and moral values suggest that most East Asian peoples are descendants of the yellow river civilization, that emerged in the flood plains of northern China around.000 years. 12 13 China has occupied the prominent, central role in East Asia for most of recorded history, as it "deeply influenced the culture of the peripheral countries and also drew them into a china-centered. International order that virtually remained in effect until the early 20th century. Highly ritualized, the Imperial Chinese Tributary system, based on the religious and philosophical idea of submission to celestial harmony 14 was also recognized by nations beyond, in southeast Asia in particular. Ceremonies were presided over by the Emperor of China as the son of heaven and curator of the mandate of heaven. 15 16 In elaborate ceremonies both, the tributary state and the various Chinese dynasties agreed to mutually favorable economic co-operation and beneficial security policies.
4, contents, multiple cultural centres edit, asia's various modern cultural and religious spheres correspond roughly with the principal centres of civilisation. West Asia and Central thesis Asia have their cultural roots in the pioneering civilisations of the. Fertile Crescent and, mesopotamia. 5, south Asia, india and the, indosphere emanate from the. 6 The east Asian cultural sphere developed from the yellow river civilization. 7 southeast Asia 's migration waves of more varied ethnic groups are relatively recent. Commercial interaction with south Asia eventually lead to the adoption of essential cultural elements from India and to a lesser extent from China.
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For the journal, see, asian Culture (journal). The culture of Asia encompasses the collective and retrolisthesis diverse customs and traditions of art, architecture, music, literature, lifestyle, philosophy, politics and religion that have been practiced and maintained by the numerous ethnic groups of the continent of, asia since prehistory. Identification of a specific culture of Asia or universal elements among the colossal diversity that has emanated from multiple cultural spheres and three of the four ancient river valley civilizations is complicated. However, the continent is commonly divided into six geographic sub-regions, that are characterized by perceivable commonalities, like religion, language and relative ethnic homogeneity. Central Asia, east Asia, north Asia, south Asia, southeast Asia and, west Asia. 1, as the largest, most populous continent and rich in resources, Asia is home to several of the world's oldest civilizations, that produced the majority of the great religious systems, the oldest known recorded myths and codices on ethics and morality. 2 3, however, Asia's enormous size separates the various civilizations by great distances and hostile environments, such as deserts and mountain ranges. Yet by challenging and overcoming these distances, trade and commerce gradually developed a truly universal, pan-Asian character. Inter-regional trade was the driving and cohesive force, by which cultural elements and ideas spread to the various sub-regions via the vast road network and the many sea routes.