If Sam experienced inadequate care in infancy it is possible that he has developed over sensitive stress responses and now regards the new baby as a threat, which could provide an explanation for his defiant behaviour and disinterest in his sibling. Pollak and the University of Wisconsin Child Emotion Lab are active in researching how early life experiences affect brain development (see child Emotion Lab, 2009: online). However, he and his colleagues stress that not all children experiencing neglect develop the same problems (Wismer-Fries., 2005: 17239). In their work on the role of early social experience in subsequent brain development they found children experiencing lower hormonal reactivity may go on to develop satisfactory interpersonal relationships and highlighted potentially significant individual differences operating across the control group and the previously neglected group. Furthermore, other research led by pollak has demonstrated how adjustable the brain can be when in the right environment (University of Wisconsin News, 2003: online). Their study of 5-6 year old's who lived in orphanages during their first seven to 41 months of life found that children performed better in many tests the longer they had lived with their adoptive families (Ibid.). Pollak "d in University of Wisconsin News, 2003: online) hopes these findings will encourage children to be placed in families rather than in institutional settings and offer new avenues for designing more effective interventions that could help children who spent their early years in deprived. Jan, erikson's life cycle approach proposes at certain points in their lives, people encounter life crises creating a conflict within themselves as individuals and between themselves and other significant people in their lives (Gibson, 2007: 74).
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Hence, before this theory, sociologists, psychologists and other specialists studied narrow aspect's of children's worlds (Brendtro, writing 2006: 163). However, tudge.(2009: 6) evaluated the application of Bronfenbrenner's theory in recently published work and found only 4 out of 25 papers claiming to be based on his theory had utilised it appropriately. . They contend if theory is to play an important role in developmental studies it must be applied correctly because: a failure to do so means that it has not been tested appropriately; data apparently supporting the theory do no such thing if the theory has. A misrepresented theory is impervious to attack from nonsupportive data (Ibid.: 206). Adoption is required when it is not possible for a child to return home, either because the parents are unable to care for them or change their lives in a way that would be safe for that child (Brent council, 2010: online). Whilst we are uncertain of the circumstances leading to sam's adoption, we can speculate that the care provided by his birth parents was deficient. Infant brain research demonstrated that if there is grossly inadequate care in infancy, the infant's brain and other abilities that depend on brain development can be compromised (Linke, 2000: online). The majority of the critical times for brain development occur before the age of six months and research indicated orphans adopted after this age made less progress than those adopted earlier (Ibid.). Furthermore, parts of the brain that regulate emotions and stress responses are organised early in a child's life and may not be changeable later (Ibid.). Subsequently, essay parts of the body and brain that respond to stress may become over sensitive and ready to respond to threat even when a threat is not manifest if the infant is continually exposed to trauma and stress (Ibid.).
This change may have influenced Sam's relationship with Tony and he may be missing having his father around as in the past. Additionally, following his adoption, dorothy felt uncertain whether to regard assignments Sam as her real grandson, a tension which Sam may sensed himself. Bronfenbrenner (Ibid.:7) also regarded the connections between other people in the setting of equal importance because of their indirect influence on the developing child through the effect they have on those who deal first hand with that person. Sam's development could have been affected by strained relations between his parents as a result of Jan not receiving the support she needs from her husband due to his work commitments. Similarly, relations between Jan and Dorothy have become tense since the baby's arrival with Jan expecting Dorothy's assistance, which has not materialised. Beyond the microsystem, an exosystem refers to settings that the developing person is not involved in as an active participant but in which events occur that affect, or are affected by, what happens in the setting containing the developing person (Ibid.: 25). Bronfenbrenner (Ibid.) offered a child's parents place of work as an example and with the need for Tony to work as much as possible, any stresses he experiences in the work environment could impinge upon Sam's development even though Sam spends no time in this. This theory recognises everyone exists within a context influencing who they are and how they respond to situations in life (Phelan, 2004: online). Whilst the building blocks in the environmental aspect of this theory were familiar concepts in the social and behavioural sciences, the way in which these entities relate to one another and to development was new (Bronfenbrenner, 1979: 8).
He focussed on: the progressive accommodation, throughout the life span, between the growing human organism and the changing environments in which it actually lives and grows. The latter include not only the immediate settings containing the developing person but also the larger social contexts, both formal and informal, in which these settings are embedded. According to Bronfenbrenner (1979.: 22 the ecological environment is comprised of a nested organisation of concentric structures with each one contained within the next. He labelled these the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem and each layer of a child's environment affects their development. When looking at the microsystem, the pattern of roles, interpersonal relations and activities experienced by the developing person in a given setting (Ibid. there are ways this could have affected Sam's development. For instance, within the family setting Jan has struggled to cope since the unexpected arrival of their baby, which subsequently could have affected Sam's relationship with her. He now has to share his mothers attention with his sibling and may be feeling left out or jealous. Furthermore, the expense of ivf has resulted in Tony working more, rendering him absent from the household more frequently.
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Aldgate (2007: 65) notes children who have lost attachment figures through entering the care system are at risk of further harm by insensitive responses to essay their attachment needs. Furthermore, children beginning new placements with insecure attachment behaviour may test the parenting capacity of their carers (Ibid.) which could explain Sam's recent deteriorating behaviour. Following two decades of research demonstrating that placement breakdown is mortgage an ongoing problem in the uk (Ibid. practitioners working with this family should be especially careful to try to prevent this. Attachment theory differs from traditional psychoanalytic theories because it rejects the model of development proposing an individual passes through a series of stages, in which they may become fixated or regress (Bowlby, 1988: 135). Instead, this model sees the individual as progressing along one of many potential developmental pathways, some of which are or are not compatible with healthy development (Ibid.).
Yet, the role of parents in shaping a child's personality has been critiqued by harris (1999: xv; 359 who offers an alternative viewpoint in The nurture Assumption and proposes it is experiences in childhood and adolescent peer groups that modify a child's personality in ways. What's more, o'connor and Nilson (2007: 319) argue that amongst children in the foster care system, attachment is considered a powerful but diffuse source of behavioural and emotional problems. Almost any disruptive behaviour can be attributed to attachment difficulties in early relationships and the early experiences are often suggested as the only source of their problems, subsequently minimising the role of the current placement experiences (Ibid.). They contend following research demonstrating foster parents attachment and caregiving does influence the child's attachment to them, it is crucial that the impact of early attachment experiences on later development should not be considered independently of current caregiving environments (Ibid.: 320). Finally, providing that new attachment figures for children can respond to children's attachment needs sensitively and are committed to handle any behaviour that may test their staying power, it is believed early patterns can be modified or discontinued (Aldgate, 2007: 66). Bronfenbrenner's (1979) Ecology of Human development looks beyond the impact of attachment to caregivers on development and offers much in terms of aiding our understanding of this families situation and behaviour. Bronfenbrenner (Ibid.: 3) developed his broader prospective to development, providing new conceptions of the developing person, the environment and the evolving interaction between them.
Hence, this is where our attention will now turn but as time does not permit consideration of all family members, for the purpose of this assignment two will be concentrated on; Sam and Jan. Sam, sam was adopted by tony and Jan at four years old, a move which, despite initial reservations, was successful. However, in recent months Sam's behaviour has deteriorated and this, alongside other problems, has led to the family seeking support. Has long been regarded as significant in children's development (Aldgate, 2007: 57). Bowlby (1977: 203) described attachment behaviour as behaviour resulting in a person attaining or retaining proximity to another differentiated and preferred individual, usually considered stronger and/or wiser.
He considered it integral to human nature, seen to varying extents in all human beings and performed the biological function of protection (Bowlby, 1988: 22). Can be affected when separated from a main attachment figure; especially if this happens involuntarily such as when a child is removed from their parents care (Aldgate, 2007: 64). Irrespective of their previous attachment experiences, they will find this frightening because they do not know who to turn to help them return to a state of equilibrium (Ibid.). This explains why children who have experienced abuse may still want to be with their parents, even if they are insecurely attached to them (Ibid.) and could illustrate why sam was recently protesting that he wanted to go back to his real mother. Daniel (2006: 193) asserts children between the ages six months and four years are most vulnerable when separated from attachment figures because: during these early years children lack the cognitive skills to comprehend the events leading to separation and this coupled with the propensity for. Sam was adopted at four years old and although we know little about the circumstances with his birth parents, importantly his attachment bond was broken at this point.
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It incorporates many facets and warming dimensions of the person and does not treat or label them as a symptom or diagnosis. However due to dessay the fact that this model wishes to treat the person as unique and as a whole creates challenges, as it is difficult to implement one universal model to be used uniquely on each individual person suffering with mental distress. Print, reference this, published: 23rd March, 2015 16th may, 2017. Human existence is not static and people are developing constantly (Thompson and Thompson, 2008: 83). For this reason, an understanding of development is central to undertaking professional social work at a high level of competence (Ibid.: 99). This case study focuses on Tony and Jan, their adopted nine year old son Sam, new baby and Jan's mother Dorothy. It is evident from reading this family's background information that a social worker should consider theories of human growth and development in order to fully assess their circumstances and behaviour.
with mental distress, within the holistic model, interventions may also include talking therapy (psychological strategies on how to build confidence and integrate back into everyday life and how to cope (emotional. None of these dimensions can be ignored; they all have to be considered in order to treat the person as a whole and to make sure they receive the best possible treatment. Although the holistic model considers the whole of the person and believes all parts of the person are interconnected, some medical practitioners still believe that mental and physical illness should be treated separately and are in no way related. The unfortunate thing though is that the boundaries between disciplines and approaches are strong, there are many specialisms boxed in such as medicine, psychology, philosophy and biology so blending those areas and taking the holistic approach is challenging. Another challenge when implementing the holistic approach could be that people have certain expectations of psychiatrists, social workers and nurses when they come into contact with a particular service so they may just want them to do their job rather than enquire or try. However might this not be the clients choice, if it is explained to them that they wish to treat them in this way. However if the client does not feel comfortable with this then this is their choice and the consequence of this decision should be explained. The implementation of the holistic model in the experience of mental distress is one that I feel is very useful.
Although this approach is measurable, is valid when it comes to training specialists and it manages to treat service users successfully what I have come to realise from my reading is that there is the danger that the whole person is not treated. The holistic approach is a model that addresses this issue and how it can be useful in explaining the experience of essay mental health. The holistic model is made up of five dimensions, emotional, physical, spiritual, psychological and social. At the centre of the model is the person, the service user/survivor. All of these dimensions must be evaluated when considering both the service users cause and treatment of mental distress; viewing the person as a whole and not just from the perspective of one dimension or individual parts, it embraces all aspects of the person. If we look at depression, this is multidimensional and therefore affects the whole person. It affects the body causing tiredness (physical ones self-esteem and confidence is reduced which is represented by the emotional and psychological dimensions.
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Finished an essay on letter the holistic approach the mental distress, thought I would share some of it; let me know your thoughts. Today the most prominent model used is the biomedical model. It relies on trained specialists submitting a diagnosis and prescribing treatment most likely to be medication or psychiatry (or both). It treats the symptoms of distress. There are many benefits to this model as it classifies symptoms and conditions and therefore with a clear diagnosis there is usually a treatment which is administrated by an expert dedicated to that condition. The diagnosis gives the illness roots of a physical form. Once the illness is diagnosed the person involved may feel relief to have an explanation and label and therefore feel less responsible for their illness.