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In 2006, using 4 billion us gallons (15,000,000 m3) of water and resulting in 253 million pounds (115,000,000 kg) of waste. Overall, us americans use 58 of all paper cups worldwide, amounting to 130 billion cups. a paper coffee cup with a plastic lid and "splash stick" Paper cups may have various types of lids. The paper cups that are used as containers for yogurt, for example, generally have two types of lids: heat-seal foil lids used for small "single serving" containers, and 150200 ml (57 US fl oz) plastic press-on, resealable lids used for large "family size" containers, 2501,000 ml (830 US fl oz where not all. 27 Hot drinks sold in paper cups may come with a plastic lid, to keep the drink hot and prevent spillage. These lids have a hole through which the drink can be sipped. The plastic lids can have many features including peel back tabs, raised walls to protect the foam of gourmet hot drinks and embossed text.

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17 18 Paper vs plastic edit a life cycle inventory of a comparison of paper vs plastic cups shows environmental effects of both with no clear winner. 19 Polyethylene (PE) is a petroleum-based coating on paper cups that asp can slow down the process of biodegrading of the paper it coats. Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable bio-plastic coating used on some paper cups. Pla is a renewable resource and is certified compostable, which means that when it biodegrades, it does not leave behind any toxic residues. 20 Although pla-lined cups are the only paper cups which can be composted fully, they can contaminate the waste stream, reportedly making other recycled plastics unsaleable. 21 All paper cups can only be recycled at a specialised treatment facility regardless of the lining. 22 A number of cities including Portland, oregon — have banned xps foam cups in take-out and fast food restaurants. 23 Emissions edit a study of one paper coffee cup with sleeve (16 ounce) shows that the co2 emissions is about.11 kilograms (0.24 lb) per cup with sleeve including paper from trees, materials, production and shipping. 24 Habitat-loss trees used edit The habitat loss from one 16 ounce paper coffee cup with a sleeve is estimated to.09 square meters (0.93 square feet). Dubious discuss 25 unreliable source? over.5 million trees were cut down to make 16 billion paper coffee cups used.

A uk-based business group James Cropper have developed the nurse worlds first facility for the effective recycling of the estimated.5 billion paper coffee cups used and disposed of by British businesses each year, and have become one of 14 international companies to formally join the. James Cropper's Reclaimed Fibre facility was opened by hm the queen in July 2013, and recovers both the plastic and paper from the cups; ensuring nothing is wasted from the recycling process. 15 Although paper cups are made from renewable resources (wood chips 95 by weight paper products in a landfill might not decompose, or can release methane, if decomposed anaerobically. A newport beach, ca company, smart Planet Technologies has developed a process for modifying the polyethylene coating on paper cups and folding cartons so they are engineered for recyclability. Orange coast College in Costa mesa, ca has begun a program to use cups made with this technology to capture and sell the fibers to fund scholarships for their students. 16 In 2017, the finnish board manufacturer Kotkamills launched a new kind of cup (food service) board which uses no wax or plastic for waterproofing, and thus can be recycled as part of the normal paper and board waste stream, biodegraded, or even composted. 13 The manufacture of paper usually requires inorganic chemicals and creates water effluents. Paper cups may consume more non-renewable resources than cups made of polystyrene foam (whose only significant effluent is pentane ).

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One of the side effects of solvent-based inks is that hot drink cups in particular can smell of solvent, whereas water-based inks have eliminated this problem. Other methods of printing have been used for short runs such as offset printing, which can vary from anything from 10,000 to 100,000 cups. Offset printing inks have also been developed and although in the past these were solvent based, the latest soya-based inks have reduced the danger of cups smelling. The latest development is Direct-printing, which allows printing on very small quantities, typically from 1,000 cups, and is used by companies including Brendos ltd offering small quantities in short lead times. Rotogravure can also be used, but this is extremely expensive and is normally only utilised for items requiring extremely high quality printing like ice cream containers. Environmental impact edit recycling edit most paper cups are designed for a single use and then disposal. Very little recycled paper is used to make paper cups because of contamination concerns and regulations. Since most paper cups are coated with plastic (polyethylene then both composting and recycling of paper cups is uncommon because of the difficulty in separating the polyethylene in the recycling process of said cups. As of 2016, there are only two facilities in the uk able to properly recycle pe-coated cups; in the absence of such facilities, the cups are taken to landfill or incinerated.

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Clay- and wax-coated cups disappeared with the invention of polyethylene (PE)-coated cups; this process covers the surface of the board with a very thin layer of pe, waterproofing the board and welding the seams together. In 2017, the finnish board manufacturer Kotkamills launched a new kind of cup (food service) board which uses no wax or plastic for waterproofing, and thus can be recycled as part of the normal paper and board waste stream, biodegraded, or even composted in small. 13 in 2017, the newport beach ca company Smart Planet Technologies, launched " recup " for the uk market, a recyclable paper cup using a polyethylene and mineral-blended coating, that is engineered to be recycled through traditional paper recycling systems. 14 Printing on paper cups edit This section does not cite any sources. (September 2017) Originally paper cups were printed using rubber blocks mounted on cylinders, with a different cylinder for each colour. Registration across different colours was very difficult, but later flexography plates became available and with the use of mounting systems it became easier to register across the colours, allowing for more complex designs. Printing flexographic has become ideal for long runs and manufacturers generally use this method when producing over a million cups. Machines such as Comexi are used for this, which have been adapted to take the extra large reels that are required by paper cup manufacturers. Ink technology has also changed and where solvent -based inks were being used, water-based inks are instead being utilised.

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The cup board grade has a special design for the cup manufacturing processes. The mouth roll forming process requires good elongation properties of essay the board and the plastic coating. A well formed mouth roll provides stiffness and handling properties in the cup. The basis weights of the cup boards are 170350 g/m2. 12 to meet hygiene requirements, paper cups are generally manufactured from virgin (non-recycled) materials.

Citation needed The one exception to this is when the paper cup features an extra insulating layer for heat retention, which never comes into contact with the beverage, such as a corrugated layer wrapped around a single-wall cup. Waterproofing edit Originally, paper cups for hot drinks were glued together and made waterproof by dropping a small amount of clay in the bottom of the cup, and then spinning at high speed so that clay would travel up the walls of the cup, making. However, this resulted in drinks smelling and tasting of cardboard. Cups for cold drinks could not be treated in the same way, as condensation forms on the outside, then soaks into the board, making the cup unstable. To remedy this, cup manufacturers developed the technique of spraying both the inside and outside of the cup with wax.

The james river Corporation purchased American Can's paper business in 1982. The assets of James river are now part of georgia-pacific, a subsidiary of Koch Industries, the second largest privately owned company in the United States. In 1983, production moved to a modern factory in Forks, pennsylvania. The original factory in Wilson has sat vacant ever since. The closing of the factory also prompted Conrail to abandon the easton northern railroad branch, of which Dixie cups was the last major customer. In 1969, the dixie cup logo was created by saul Bass, a graphic designer known for his motion picture title sequences.


The coupon collector's problem is sometimes called the dixie cup problem. Manufacture edit The world's largest "paper" cup in front of what was once the lily-tulip manufacturing company, later Sweetheart Cup Company. 11 Made of poured concrete, the cup stands about.1 feet (20.8 m) tall. See also: Liquid packaging board see also: Paper cup forming machine The base paper for paper cups is called "cup board and is made on special multi-ply paper machines. It has a barrier coating for waterproofing. The paper needs high stiffness and strong wet sizing.

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Luellen developed an ice-cooled water- vending machine with disposable cups, 7 and with another Bostonian, hugh moore, embarked on an advertising campaign to educate the public and to market his machine, principally to railroad companies. Professor davison's study was instrumental in abolishing the public glass and opening the door for the paper cup. Soon, the devices, which would dispense cool water for one cent, became standard equipment on trains. Dixie cup Company, easton, pennsylvania the dixie cup was first called "Health Kup but from 1919 it was named after a line of universities dolls made by Alfred Schindler's Dixie doll Company in New York. Success led the company, which had existed under a variety of names, to call itself the dixie cup Corporation and move to a factory in Wilson, pennsylvania. Atop the factory was a large water tank in the shape of a cup. 10 In 1957, dixie merged with the American Can Company.

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hospitals for health reasons. In 1942 the massachusetts State college found in one study that the cost of using washable glasses, re-used after being sanitized, was.6 times the cost of using single-service paper cups. 9, these studies, as well as the reduction in the risk of cross-infection, encouraged the use of paper cups in hospitals. Dixie cups edit "Dixie cup" redirects here. For the type of naval headgear, see sailor cap. For the band, see the dixie cups. Dixie cup is the brand name for a line of disposable paper cups that were first developed in the United States in 1907 by lawrence luellen, a lawyer in Boston, massachusetts, who was concerned about germs being spread by people sharing glasses or dippers.

In the early 20th century, it was common to have shared glasses or dippers at water sources such as school faucets or water barrels in trains. This shared use caused public health concerns. One notable investigation into their use was the study by Alvin davison, biology professor. Lafayette college, published with the sensational title "Death in School Drinking Cups". Technical World Magazine in August 1908, based on research carried out. Easton, pennsylvania 's public schools. The article was reprinted and distributed by the massachusetts State board of health in november 1909. 7, based on these paper concerns, and as paper goods (especially after the 1908 invention of the dixie cup) became cheaply and cleanly available, local bans were passed on the shared-use cup. One of the first railway companies to use disposable paper cups was the.

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Plain paper cup, insulated paper cup for hot drinks, cut away to show air layer. A paper cup is a disposable cup made out of paper and often lined or coated with plastic or wax to prevent liquid from leaking out or soaking through the paper. 1 2 3, it may be made of recycled paper 4 and is widely used around the world. Contents, history edit, paper cups have been documented in imperial China, where paper was invented by 2nd century. 5, paper cups were known as chih pei and were used for the serving of tea. 6, shortage they were constructed in different sizes and colors, and were adorned with decorative designs. Textual evidence of paper cups appears in a description of the possessions of the yu family, from the city. 6, the modern paper cup was developed in the 20th century.


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Virtually every major research library in the world provides access to the Proques t Dissertations theses (pqdt) database through one of several formats. Fact 1 may be in the biography of srinivasa ramanujan ramanujan 's dissertation mentorship essay srinivasa ramanujan.

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